The peptide was named NHBP1. The recombinant ferritin not only had the ability to bind to the carbonaceous material but also attracted other recombinant ferritins through hydrophobic interaction. The author also found that protein—protein and protein—substrate interactions were controlled by buffer solution conditions. By studying the conditions in detail, it became possible for the recombinant ferritin to fabricate a two-dimensional 2D array directly on the silicon substrate Figure 7. Figure 7 SEM image of hexagonally packed array of mutant ferritins with a peptide which binds specifically carbonaceous surface left ; SEM image of ferritin without target-specific peptides right.
Both ferritins were applied to the silicon surface in the same process. Using the same recombinant carbonaceous material-binding ferritin, Ikezoe et al. Tsukamoto et al. The substrate was firstly covered with poly ethylene glycol Peg. The recombinant ferritins with NHBP1 peptides were spin-coated on the substrate with a thin Peg surface layer. AFM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed the complete elimination of the protein shell. The obtained NP monolayer was embedded in a nm-thick control silicon dioxide layer.
A narrow gate voltage sweep produced the typical I D — V G curve of a normal n-channel Mosfet, indicating that the Mosfet functioned normally. When the positive gate voltage was high enough, the electrons in the n-channel tunnelled into the NP array and shut off the drain current at the higher gate voltage. In contrast, when the negative gate voltage was low enough, holes were stored in the NP array and worked in reverse.
Homogeneous NPs synthesised in apoferritin molecules are suitable catalysts for size-regulated CNT growth. Kramer et al. Kumagai et al. Sugano et al. They selectively placed ferritins with iron oxide cores on the resonator and, after protein elimination, produced the CNT forest by using the iron oxide cores as catalysts. The density and the location of the CNT forest were well controlled.
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The produced analyser with the CNT forest as gas adsorber showed high sensitivity. It was also demonstrated that the same nanostructures could be produced using ferritin molecules. Figure 9 shows the current—voltage characteristics of the buffer-free bioconjugates network. The current suppression at low bias voltage is considered to be the effect of Coulomb blockade.
It was indicated that tunnelling junctions between CNTs and some of the NPs surrounding them were formed and that the NPs worked as a quantum well.
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It was also suggested that the formation of conductive paths as a result of cobalt oxide reduction within NPs caused the hysteresis. These results indicate that the bioconjugates can be a new type of a heteromaterial fusing inorganic materials and proteins.
Novel properties generated by the conjugation are expected. Dps has both N- and C-termini extending outside in the solution. Inoue et al. In the titania matrix layer, carrier—hole recombination and trapping at grain boundaries are crucial to achieving high power conversion efficiencies. The conjugate was expected to produce an electron highway in the titania matrix, where electrons generated by the dye are transferred to the SWCNT and travel rapidly to the electrode. Current density improvement indicated reduction in resistance in the photovoltaic device by the nanostructure.
These results clearly demonstrate that nanostructures produced by designed bio-supramolecules can enhance power conversion efficiency. Ito et al.
Bionanotechnology: Proteins to Nanodevices
CNTs are a promising material expected to produce flexible thermoelectric devices based on mechanically high strength, lightness and high electric conductivity. However, there are drawbacks with CNTs such as large thermal conductivity and low Seebeck coefficient. The junctions create a new type of Seebeck effect and reduce the thermal conductivity dramatically. Figure 12 Schematic diagrams of a Seebeck effect at a biomolecular junction, b drawing of two Campylobacter jejuni Dps molecules bridging two CNTs. Note that the CNTs are enlarged for ease.
The results indicated the thermal conductivity was markedly suppressed, the electrical conductivity increased and the Seebeck coefficient increased.
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The top-down technology of miniaturisation is powerful but cannot produce subnm structures essential for next-generation nanoelectronic devices and quantum effect devices. The BNP can produce subnm structures by combining biotemplated biomineralisation of inorganic materials and self-assembly. As demonstrated in this paper, artificial proteins are efficient at producing such nanometric structure constructions i. The integration of top-down and bottom-up technologies is a promising technology for realising and producing nanoelectronic devices commercially. However, several hurdles remain until the BNP will be used in mass productions.
Those hurdles include economical highly pure protein production, precise control of protein adsorption to designated surfaces and easy design and production of biotemplates or protein supramolecules with target shapes. But based on the fact that intensive basic research studies have rapidly increased the number of materials that can be synthesised in cage-shaped proteins, these limits shall soon be lifted.
This biological approach will open up a new path towards the fabrication of functional nanostructures realising new devices operating on completely new mechanisms. The author thanks L. McDowell for English proofreading. Open PDF. Surface Innovations. Volume 4 Issue 3, September , pp. Themed issue on bio—nano interfaces and their engineering applications.
Author Affiliations. Key: Open access content Subscribed content Free content Trial content. Full Text Abstract Section:. Keywords: bioinspired nanomaterials nanotechnology. Related content. Nanobiotechnology of protein-based compartments: steps toward nanofactories. Bioinspired immobilization of carbon nanotubes on scaffolds for nerve regeneration. Chemical pavement modifications to reduce ice adhesion. Content tools.
Add to Favorites Cite this Track Citations. Site Tools Sign up for e-alerts. What is this? Permissions Recommend to library. Related search. By Keyword bioinspired nanomaterials nanotechnology. By Author Yamashita Ichiro. Researchers from Aalto University have published an article in the recent Trends in Biotechnology journal. The article discusses how DNA molecules can be assembled into tailored and complex nanostructures, and further, how these structures can find uses in therapeutics and bionanotechnological applications. In the review article, the researchers outline the superior properties of DNA nanostructures, and how these features enable the development of efficient biological DNA-nanomachines.
Moreover, these DNA nanostructures provide new applications in molecular medicine, such as novel approaches in tackling cancer. Tailored DNA structures could find targeted cells and release their molecular payload drugs or antibodies selectively into these cells. This method is the starting point for practically all other straightforward design approaches available today," describes Veikko Linko, an Academy of Finland postdoctoral researcher from Biohybrid Materials Group.
The most important feature of a DNA-based nanostructure is its modularity.
P.P. Pompa and R. Rinaldi
DNA structures can be fabricated with nanometer-precision, and most importantly, other molecules such as RNA, proteins, peptides and drugs can be anchored to them with the same resolution. Such a high accuracy can be exploited in creating nanosized optical devices as well as molecular platforms and barcodes for various imaging techniques and analytics. For molecular medicine, tiny DNA-based devices could be utilized not only in detecting single molecules but also in modulating cell signaling. In the near future, highly sophisticated DNA-robots could be even used in creating artificial immune systems.
A system based on tailored DNA-devices could help to avoid unnecessary drug treatments, since programmed DNA-nanorobots could detect various agents from the blood stream, and immediately start the battle against disease. The research group lead by Professor Mauri Kostiainen works extensively with DNA nanostructures, and the group has just recently published two research articles regarding DNA-based applications in biotechnology and molecular medicine.
The researchers have coated DNA nanostructures with virus capsid proteins in order to significantly improve their transport to human cells; this could find uses for example in enhanced drug delivery. In addition, the group has designed a modular DNA-based enzymatic nanoreactor that can be exploited in diagnostics at the molecular scale level. Materials provided by Aalto University.
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